𝐷𝑟. 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛 𝑇ℎ𝑖 𝑀𝑖𝑛ℎ 𝐶ℎ𝑎𝑢.
Angelina Jolie is a very famous actress. She lost her mother, grandmother and aunt because of breast cancer. In 2013, she announced that she had a mutation in the BRCA1 gene (which increases the risk of breast cancer). After that, Jolie underwent a prophylactic double mastectomy. That means she had both of her breasts removed even though she hadn’t been diagnosed with breast cancer. Today, we are going to tell you what genetic testing is and who needs it.
𝟏. 𝐖𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐢𝐬 𝐠𝐞𝐧𝐞𝐭𝐢𝐜 𝐭𝐞𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠?
Genetic testing looks for specific inherited changes (variants) in a person’s genes.
𝟐. 𝐖𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐢𝐬 𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐞𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐚𝐫𝐲 𝐜𝐚𝐧𝐜𝐞𝐫?
Cancer can sometimes appear to “run in families”. Hereditary cancer occurs when the mutated gene that causes cancer is passed from a parent to a child. People who carry an inherited cancer gene have an increased risk that they or a family member will develop cancer. Hereditary cancers account for 5-10% of all cancers.
𝟑. 𝐖𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐠𝐞𝐧𝐞𝐭𝐢𝐜 𝐭𝐞𝐬𝐭𝐬 𝐚𝐫𝐞 𝐚𝐯𝐚𝐢𝐥𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐜𝐚𝐧𝐜𝐞𝐫 𝐫𝐢𝐬𝐤 𝐚𝐬𝐬𝐞𝐬𝐬𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭?
Scientists found that about 20 types of cancer run in families, such as ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, endometrial cancer,…
Many genes can be involved in a cancer. Many cancers may be associated with a single gene. Currently, in Vietnam, there are many centers that carry out testing for these genetic mutations, especially in CMI.
𝟒. 𝐖𝐡𝐨 𝐧𝐞𝐞𝐝𝐬 𝐠𝐞𝐧𝐞𝐭𝐢𝐜 𝐭𝐞𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐢𝐧𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐢𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐜𝐚𝐧𝐜𝐞𝐫?
Genetic testing for hereditary cancer is not a routine test, and it is recommended that you have one of the following conditions:
– Having more than two first-degree relatives** with the same type of cancer or with a genetically related cancer (such as breast, ovarian, colorectal and pancreatic cancers …).
– Having a close relative with primary cancer in more than one organ.
– Having a close relative with cancer at an unusually young age for that type of cancer (such as ovarian cancer < 40 years old; breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer < 50 years old).
– Having a close relative with a rare type of cancer (male breast cancer or retinoblastoma), cancer on both sides of the organ in pairs (bilateral breasts cancer…)
– Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.
– Relatives had positive genetic testing to detect genetic mutations that cause cancer.
– You do not have a family history but you are interested in getting screened.
** First-degree relatives = parents, siblings, children
𝟓. 𝐖𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐬𝐡𝐨𝐮𝐥𝐝 𝐲𝐨𝐮 𝐝𝐨 𝐰𝐡𝐞𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐬𝐜𝐫𝐞𝐞𝐧𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐮𝐥𝐭 𝐢𝐬 𝐩𝐨𝐬𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐞?
Even if you inherit cancer genes from your family, it is not certain that you will get cancer. The progression of the disease depends on lifestyle, comorbidities and environmental influences. However, if you have a positive genetic mutation test, you need to be consulted by a specialist for appropriate follow-up in the future. You should remember that 80% of cancer patients can be completely cured if detected at an early stage.
𝟔. 𝐖𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐚𝐫𝐞 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐚𝐝𝐯𝐚𝐧𝐭𝐚𝐠𝐞𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐠𝐞𝐧𝐞𝐭𝐢𝐜 𝐜𝐚𝐧𝐜𝐞𝐫 𝐬𝐜𝐫𝐞𝐞𝐧𝐢𝐧𝐠?
– Needs to be done ONLY ONCE in a lifetime (for each genetic type)
– With one blood sample, many genetic genes can be screened.
– The price is not expensive.
– Helps detect potential cancer risks early, thereby taking appropriate follow-up, detecting disease early, reducing treatment costs and increasing survival rates.
– There are many programs to support screening tests for relatives and follow-up counseling if your results are POSITIVE.
𝟕. 𝐖𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐠𝐞𝐧𝐞𝐭𝐢𝐜 𝐭𝐞𝐬𝐭𝐬 𝐚𝐫𝐞 𝐚𝐯𝐚𝐢𝐥𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐚𝐭 𝐃𝐞𝐩𝐚𝐫𝐭𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐨𝐟 𝐎𝐛𝐬𝐭𝐞𝐭𝐫𝐢𝐜𝐬 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐆𝐲𝐧𝐞𝐜𝐨𝐥𝐨𝐠𝐲 𝐚𝐭 𝐂𝐌𝐈?
• PinkCare: screening hereditary breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer: genes
👉 BRCA1, BRCA2
👉 PTEN, TP53, CDH1, PALB2, STK11, MLH1, MSH2, APC
• MenCare: screening hereditary prostate cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer: genes
👉 MLHL, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM (Lynch syndrome)
👉 BRCA1, BRCA2
👉 APC, MUTYH, CDH1